Welshman, Robert Recorde, born in Tenby, is credited in 1557 with introducing algebra to England, and the = sign. However some continued to use the ae and oe ( short for aequalis), and vertical parallel lines until the 1700.s.
In The One of Wit of 1557, Recorde stated, [in the language of the time]: ‘To avoide the tedious repetition of these woordes: is equall to : I will settle as I doe offer in woorke use, a paire of paralleles, or gemowe [twin] lines of one lengthe =, because noe 2 thynges, can be moare equalle….’ (sic).
Recorde had a chequered career which landed him in prison, leaving him feeling, no doubt, his future was in jeopardy.
For it was Today in 1558 that the physician and mathematician made a will inside King’s Bench Prison, Southwark, having been put there for being unable to pay the debt for libel to William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke. He died soon afterwards.
Then Recorde was made Surveyor of Mines and Monies in Ireland, but failing to make a profit was dismissed in 1553.
He wrote many books including the ‘Declaration of the Profit of Aritmeticke’ (sic), written to try to improve knowledge of basic arithmetic, in the preface writing about the poor state of learning in England. Nothing changes!
He also says, ‘how the learned are made fun of by the uneducated…it was a great cause of lament….when learned men…takes pain to do things for the aid of the unlearned. But derided and scorned and so utterly discouraged to take in hand any like enterprise again’.
Al-jabr (algebra) comes from Arabic mathematicians and which term, ‘refers to: reduction and balancing (transposition) of subtracted terms to the other side of the equation’.
In other terms, cancellation of like terms (constant terms) on opposite sides of the equation.
Abstract algebra should not be confused with manipulation of formulae as happens widely in schools, but what Recorde did in his books was bridge the difference between theory and application. However despite all his best efforts, for most today, Algebra is still a closed book.
This evening President Putin of Russia attended a dinner at the Guildhall, London in 2003. The last Russian, as opposed to a Soviet Head of State, to experience this hospitality, was Tsar Alexander II back in 1874, who had a choice of twenty-two courses which included seven desserts.(1)
That impressive menu was headed: ‘Reception By the Corporation of the City of London of his Imperial Majesty, The Emperor of All The Russias, at the Guildhall’ followed by the date: in 2003 it just said ‘Menu’.
The President was here to celebrate 450 years of trade links with Britain, and marked the day when Richard Chancellor accidentally discovered the northern route to Russia, via the White Sea, which led to the formation of the Muscovy Company in 1555. (2)
The history of Arctic exploration goes back to 14th September 1553 when Sir Hugh Willoughby of Risley, the Arctic explorer, sailed into a bay near to the present border between Finland and Russia. His chief pilot was Richard Chancellor, under the auspices of what was later to be called the Muscovy Company, to find a north-east route to Cathay (China).
In the 15thc the Cabots and Columbus journeyed largely unnoticed, and Geography where taught, was based on the out-of-date ‘disc’ maps which displayed Britain as the ‘utmost corner of the West’, instead as the island outpost ideally placed to become the intermediary between the old world and the new.
The greatest mathematicians of the day were thus to produce by the latter part of the 15thc a Nautical Almanack and Manual of Navigation. But we lagged behind however in these matters for Britain, down to the time of Henry VII, was anything but a maritime people.
The oldest arithmetic books were simply Ready-Reckoners. Commerce implied ships and this implied navigation, and the ability to set a course by compass and chart.
Checking a position by even the simplest observation of a star something more than arithmetic was needed. The ship-master must be familiar with the measurement of angles.
Navigation was primitive, so two Cambridge scholars, Robert Recorde, John Dee and Richard Chancellor were brought to London to give the most up to date training in the science of navigation that Europe could provide; thus, ‘Shooting the Sun’ began to replace ‘Rule of Thumb’.
The ability was now needed to fix the latitude of the sun and to understand the solar declination which alters daily. Thus astronomy-‘shooting the stars’ for navigation, acquired a practical significance.
By the time Henry VIII had died in 1547, a group headed by the Duke of Northumberland had embraced the project of discovering a short Arctic passage to Cathay, and accepted that maths theory was fundamental to technical advance in navigation: the beneficiaries were the Muscovy and later trading companies.
(1) May 18th 1874.
(2) The City’s first commercial links with Russia were established when Tsar Ivan IV granted a charter to the company giving it the monopoly of English trade with Russia.