Today the portrait and landscape artist Thomas Gainsborough FRSA died in 1788. (1)
In the 18thc landscape artists were considered to be a lowly branch of art, but Gainsborough managed to combine the two genres, but found portraiture more lucrative and is especially famous for the Blue Boy and Mr and Mr and Mrs Andrews (below).
The Blue Boy is a costume study showing the shift from female dress worn also by boys, to a more male dress of cape, leggings and stockings, despite the flowered shoes. The confident stance and the plumed hat demonstrates his masculinity.
The painting was sold in 1921 for c £148,000 to an American railroad magnate.
The painting of Mr and Mrs Andrews was still in the possession of the family until 1960 when it was sold Gerald Willoughbury Andrews (born 1896) at Sotheby’s for £130.000 and is now in the National Gallery. (2)
The painting was one of four to represent British art in the Paris Exhibition to celebrate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
In 1759 ever ambitious, Gainsborough moved to fashionable Bath where he found a lucrative market in the resident authors, actors and high society.
By 1774 he was residing in London’s Pall Mall and six years later he was commissioned to paint George III and Queen Charlotte becoming a royal favourite, which fuelled a rivalry with the official court painter Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Above right is the birthplace of the artist in Sudbury, Suffolk, which was purchased for £230 in 1722, before being auctioned in 1792. Since when it went through many manifestations. It is now the Gainsborough Museum.
(1) Baptised 14th May 1727.
(2) Mrs Frances Andrews was raised at Ballingdon Hall, Essex and Mr Andrew’s father owned land at Bulmer, an adjoining estate. The couple are buried at Bulmer Church and have a memorial inside.
Doggett’s Coat and Badge’ River Race having started Today in 1715 from London Bridge to Cadogan Pier, Chelsea was founded by an Irishman theatre impresario, Thomas Doggett (1640-1721).
An ardent Whig he endowed the race in perpetuity in celebration of the new dynasty represented by the accession to the throne by George I a year previously.
Thus The ponderous Hanoverian Age was ushered in with the oldest rowing race and probably the oldest sporting contest in the world.
The race was supposed, logically, to be administered by the Watermans’ Livery Company, but Doggett’s will executed by Mr. Burt of the Admiralty Office saw it going to the Fishmongers’.
However the race jollities mask the unpopularity of the Hanoverians for on the arrival of George I in 1714, The Earl of Mar had raised the Jacobite standard at Perth on September 6th and within a few weeks 10,000 men were in arms against Hanoverian rule in Scotland.
Under the 1701 Act of Settlement, George’s mother Sophia was nominated as heiress if there was no issue from William (III) and Mary.
The Act reinforced the Bill of Rights agreed by William and Mary in 1689 which main aim was to ensure a Protestant succession.
The Act stated a Protestant succession and George’s mother was the closest Protestant relative though at least 50 catholic relatives had a stronger claim.
However Sophia and Queen Anne died in quick succession leaving the way open for the non-English speaking George. By Sophia’s death she missed becoming queen, by three months. It was thus the Great Grandson of James I, under the Hanoverian succession who came to the throne as George I.
The prize for the Doggett’s Race is the Waterman’s red coat and silver badge, showing a horse of the House of Hanover, ‘Liberty’, in honour the accession of George I.
The prize for George I was continual conflict with the Jacobites and later public statues with him dressed in a Roman toga, and a dynasty which lasted to the end of Queen Victoria in 1901.
parliament.uk. Act of Settlement/Pic.
Marconi’s transmitting station was set up overlooking the famous Needles at Alum Bay and his technological wonders are recorded on a memorial in the car park .
Today in 1910 Dr. Crippen was arrested at sea by use of the new technology of Marconi, and he also proved to be the first criminal to be arrested with the aid of the new medium, whilst sailing on the SS Montrose.
Captain Kendall had ‘smelt a rat’ and contacting England by wireless soon had Inspector Drew on his way by a faster ship and boarded the Montrose as a ‘pilot’ to make his arrest.
The good doctor was escaping to Canada with his companion, actress, Ethel Le Neve who happened to be disguised as a male, after killing his oppressive wife Cora, whose remains were found in Crippen’s cellar.
After a trial and conviction at the Old Bailey, London, Crippen was executed at Pentonville on 23rd November 1910, by an executioner who happened to be a York barber, John Ellis. Le Neve was exonerated.
The first to be arrested, by ‘wire telegraph’, was John Tawell, forger of banknotes and murderer in 1845. He was seen getting on the Paddington train; the telegraph clicked to Paddington recording: ‘A murder has just been seen committed at Salt Hill and the suspect was seen to have taken a first class ticket to London by the train that left Slough at 7.42 pm’.
It went on, ‘he is in the garb of a ’Kwaker’ (Quaker as the telegraph had no ’Q’ and used the phonetic ‘K’), with a brown great-coat on, which reached his feet. He is in last compartment of the second 1st Class carriage‘.
Tawell was publically hanged at Aylesbury and broadsheets about the murderer were handed to the people around the scaffold.
Another who fell foul of scientific development was Dr. George Henry Lamson known as the Wimbledon (aconite) poisoner who had moved to Bournemouth c 1878 to become a GP.(1)
It appeared that Lamson had a brother-in-law, Percy Malcolm who was resident at a private school who happened to be an invalide. Lamson on a visit had showed him a new capsule which could be used for his medication.
However this had been injected with Aconite, the ‘Queen of Poisons’, before Lamson departed by train; by the time he was home, Malcolm had died a violent death. (2)
Lamson’s motive, as old as time, was his desire to profit by the death, at a time when he was particularly strapped for cash due to his morphine addiction and love of the high life.
Lamson had been taught as a student that Aconite was undetectable, so in 1882 he had assumed that the poisoning wouldn’t be diagnosed.
However developments in science had shown otherwise. His defence attempted to blame Ptomaine, a now discredited theory, that death can result by alkaloid toxins from decomposing foods. Lamson’s end came from the skills employed by the well known William Marwood in April 1882.
The development of science, in particular the discovery of DNA, has caused descendants of the Crippen familly in America to suggesti that the ‘slide’ used in evidence by pathologist, Bernard Spilsbury didn’t relate to Cora’s DNA, but tends to fall down as Cora never had a birth certificate to prove maternity.
(1) The Greeks called aconite ( ‘without struggle’) as the ‘Queen of Poisons’; Cerberus was supposed to drool aconite. Also known as wolf bane and monkshood and supposedly used by witches of old. It featured in Wilde’s 1891 ‘Lord Arthur Savile’s Crime’.
Aconitum ferox (ferocious) or Indian aconite a root called ‘Bish’ was not known to be used again until an Indian lady poisoned a relative in 2009. It is known to be the most horrendous poison in that victims remain conscious throughout.
(2) Lamson had won the Legion of Honour for his work in the French Ambulance Corps in the Franco-Prussian siege of Paris 1870 and rumoured to have saved lives in the Rumanian War of Independence. Becoming part of Bournemouth life he obtained a commission in the Bournemouth and Hants Artillery Volunteers.
theguardian.com. Martin Hodgson. 17.10.2007.
bournemouthecho.co.uk.31.10.2010. Stephen Bailey.
bbc.co.uk. Article re DNA.
historytoday. R. Cavendish. 29.7.2010.
Ramsay MacDonald MP., was the great betrayer of the Labour Party when he formed a National Government in 1930, for which action he was never forgiven. Forever the opportunist, on losing his seat in 1935 he accepted one of the Scottish Universities, an example of plural voting which he had previously sought to abolish. (1)
University seats originated in Scotland where representatives of the ancient universities sat in the unicameral Estates of Parliament and when James VI (I) inherited the English throne in 1603 the system was adopted by the Parliament in England, continued by the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and in the UK Parliament to 1950.
Thus Oxbridge from 1603 until 1950, each university had two seats applicable to all graduates whether resident or not. London University from 1868 was similarly enfranchised. Birmingham, Bristol, Durham, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Reading (from 1928) and Sheffield as Combined Universities were granted two between them from 1918 to 1950.
The Combined Scottish Universities had three between them, Queen’s, Belfast and University of Wales one each. Under Northern Ireland Legislation, Queen’s became an anomaly in having four members to 1969. The Single Transferable Vote was used for these elections.
So apart from Queen’s, Belfast, all other university seats were abolished by the Representation of the People Act March 16th 1948, receiving its Royal Assent Today on the 30th July of the same year.
It also meant that with effect from the Parliamentary Dissolution in 1950 that all plural voting was abolished by which anyone could vote in a University seat, in the place where he had property, and where he/she lived, if different; in effect three votes.
One notable holder of a university seat was humourist, playwright and novelist, Sir Alan Herbert CH (1898-1971). He held the seat of Oxford from 1935-1950.
(1) MP.s in the early years included Pitt the Younger, Palmerston, Robert Peel and Gladstone.
The first continental guide book was written by the physician and traveller Andrew Borde who died in 1549.
However guide-books were not to become really popular until British and Continental travel increased by the mid-19th century and destined to become synonymous with George Bradshaw cartographer, printer and publisher who was born Today in 1800. (1)
Bradshaw had started his publishing career with his British Maps of Inland Navigation of the canal of Lancashire and Yorkshire, to be followed soon after with his compilation of railway timetables.
His first one-volume Guide came out in December 1841 and despite religious scruples, was dated ‘For December 1841’, the only extant copy being in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. (2)
The publications were esteemed by the prestigious Punch Magazine which in 1865 said, ‘seldom has the gigantic intellect of man been employed upon a greater utility’.
The Guides helped create some order out of the chaos of 150 companies each with its own timetables and whose lines criss-crossed the whole of the country.
At first only the main railway stations were listed but with the increase in lines from 1856 all stations were shown in the index.
The original price was 6d and by attracting adverts the price was held until 1916 when it became a shilling. Front covers saw Lea & Perrins Sauce, Stephens’ Ink, Martell Brandy, Chubb’s Safes and Waring & Gillow furniture.
By 1939 it was 7s 6d and 10 shillings in 1955. By 1961 the Guide was dead as British Rail produced its own standard timetable, but by then there were no minor lines and idiosyncrasy was gone.
Bradshaw’s main rival was the Alphabetical Railway Guide (ABC) which began in 1853 and to feature in Agatha Christie’s ‘ABC Murders’, others like the Intelligible Railway Guide followed. Sometimes Bradshaw’s precision failed as when it dropped the howler in 1936 when it noted that the 10.45 from Paddington had a ‘Buffer Car’.
Bradshaw’s was so typical of Victorian and Edward times that the name became an eponym for travel guides and was one of the representative articles sealed in the pedestal of Cleopatra’s Needle on London’s Embankment.
The Guide was a fund of information, apart from tables, and used much by Sherlock Holmes, though it was usually left to Watson to consult it. In the ‘Copper Beeches’ for example Holmes tells Watson: ‘Just look up the trains in Bradshaw’. (3)
After the reduction of railway companies to four in 1923 there was less need for a Bradshaw, but it still continued with a wide range of titles until publication ceased in 1961.
It is ironic that George Bradshaw was to die from travelling abroad, in Oslo, on 6th September 1853 from cholera.
(1) The publisher was W.J.Adams, London.
(2) Bradshaw being a Quaker objected to the pagan names of the month.
(3) Other novels referring to Bradshaw: Conan-Doyle’s, Valley of Fear; Christie’s, Death in the Clouds, 1935 and Secret Adversary, and Rebecca, 1938, by du Maurier.
Today the Royal Assent was granted to the Senior Courts Act 1981 which came into effect on the first day of the next year.
This Act effectively prescribed the structure of jurisdiction of the Senior Courts, in England and Wales, previously known as Superior Courts. These Senior Courts now comprised the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice, the Employment Appeal Court and the Crown Courts.
Ten years earlier the 1971 Courts Act had created permanent Crown Courts by abolishing, among other things, the periodic Assize Courts, divided into Circuits, held in County towns, and the quarterly, Quarter Sessions, (lower courts), of the County Boroughs and Counties.(1)
It also abolished the antique Courts, of Chancery of the County Palatine of Lancashire (controlled by the Duchy as opposed to the monarch), and of Durham, the Tolzey and The Liverpool Court of Passage.
Certain anomolous areas had their own Quarter Sessions until the 1850 Liberty Act transferred these to County authorities. One such was the Liberty adjoining the Tower of London including the Minories which in 1855 was administered by the Whitechapel Board of Works, not abolished until June 1894.(2)
Over the years much tradition was associated with the Courts. However the 8th Baronet, Harpur Crewe, when High Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1821, did away with the local Assize Ball which he regarded, ‘as cruel and heartless that any person should be found engaged in a world of mirth when so many were trembling on the eve of their trial’.
The Assize was a periodic criminal court referring to ‘Sittings of Assises’ when Justices of Assize travelled seven Circuits on Commission of ‘oyer and terminer’ (hear and determine) for treasons felonies and misdemeanours, with records up to 1733 being mainly in Latin.
These sittings dated from Henry II’s 1166 Assize of Clarendon, which established ‘Trial by Jury’ by an Assize of twelve knights which provided justice in land disputes. Prior to the Magna Carta, Writs of Assize were tried at Westminster or had to wait for Septennial Circuits of ‘Justices in Eyre’.
From 1559 the Assize Courts dealt with the more serious cases, but by Victorian times it was obvious that the increased workload resulting from an increased population required reform. Also these courts had taken on many civil cases, including divorce which saved litigants the journey to London.
In 2009 The Constitutional Reform Act established a Supreme Court, replacing the Appellate Committee of the Lords.
(1) The Assizes were abolished in the Court Act which received the Royal Assent on 12th May 1971.
In 1956 Assizes and Quarter Sessions had been replaced by the Crown Court in Manchester and Liverpool. Quarter Sessions survived in Scotland, (which has a different legal system to England and Wales,) until 1975.
(2) The Minories was named after the nuns of the Abbey of Minoresses of S. Mary of the Order of S. Clare (The Poor Clares) which dissolved in 1539 and came under the King’s jurisdiction.
Hopkinson’s Law in physics is the magnetic counterpart of Ohm’s Law of electrical resistance.
Apart from inventing the 3-phase system for the distribution of electric power, physicist and engineer John Hopkinson FRS born Today in 1849 invented a system of rotating optics which allows adjacent lighthouses to be distinguished by the number of times per revolutions that the light flashes. (1)
Hopkinson a brilliant mathematician, he was Senior Wrangler (top in the Tripos Exams) at Cambridge, spurning an academic career joined his father’s engineering works and in 1872 moved to the Smethwick, Birmingham, pioneering glass company, Chance Brothers, as Engineering Manager of the Lighthouse Engineering Department where he invented rotating optics.
From 1851 Chance Brothers became a major engineering company producing optical components, machinery and other equipment for lights.
James Timmins Chance pioneered placing lights inside a cage surrounded by ‘fresnel lenses’ .to increase the available light output. Known as optics they were to revolutionize lighthouse glass design.
Chance Brothers developed into many new areas in the use of glass, being responsible for the 300.000 panes of the 1851 Crystal Palace (see below), the glass of Parliament’s ‘Big Ben’ and novelty items.
Hopkinson died tragically with three of his children in a Swiss mountaineering accident on 27th August 1898, a sad end for one who rowed and was a miler for his university, and with so much potential unrealized.
Chance Bros. was acquired by Pilkington’s, glass, but the name lives on as a limited company.
(1) The patent for his 3-phase system was awarded in 1882.
bbc.co.uk. Riyah Collins. 24.10.2017.
Pictures by Mark Davies and Chris. Williams of Chance Bros.